cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490031 BLACK/VNM GREENTRB GREENWHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1

B00JW3VCHQ
cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490-031 BLACK/VNM GREEN-TRB GREEN-WHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1
  • JANOSKI LEATHER
  • BLACK/GREEN/WHITE
cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490-031 BLACK/VNM GREEN-TRB GREEN-WHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1 cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490-031 BLACK/VNM GREEN-TRB GREEN-WHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1 cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490-031 BLACK/VNM GREEN-TRB GREEN-WHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1 cheap very cheap cheap price discount authentic Nike Men's Zoom Stefan Janoski L Sneakers 616490-031 BLACK/VNM GREEN-TRB GREEN-WHITE visit buy sale online p9hWDJ1
  1. discount fake cheap sale footlocker Belleville F630ST Womens Hot Weather AF Maintainer Olive Leather Boots finishline cheap price mG6gbJe
  2. Preventing healthcare associated Gram-nega...
Theme:
El Naturalista Women’s N5301 Mary Janes Brown Henna discount affordable 8t33fiAN
Topics:
Hogan Mens Trainers Blue Blue Denim free shipping fast delivery footlocker for sale cheap free shipping genuine with paypal cheap online 60qACBnssb
, Nike Free 50 Tr Fit 4 Women’s Trainers Black/White/Cool Grey/Wlf Grey outlet locations cheap online outlet Manchester outlet cheap price discount low shipping lRR3yln
Resource type:
get to buy online Apple of Eden Women’s Chiusi Open Toe Sandals Beige Nude 29 2014 new online clearance cheapest price discount ebay under IuBJG74cj2
Source:
Jb Martin Women’s Quelle Platform Sandals Orange Chevre Velours Tosca Tosca free shipping visit new nicekicks cheap price for nice for sale cpvrb4
Published on:
Last updated:

Full page history

20 September 2017
Added section on monitoring E.coli
6 July 2017
Added 'Guidance on the definition of healthcare associated Gram-negative bloodstream infections' in Essential Standards section.
3 May 2017
First published.
( 0 )
official site cheap price outlet new arrival Bianco Women’s Warm Clean Son15 Ankle Boots 1 Brown Braun Light Brown/24 clearance ebay QNWYVvmCF0

An improvement resource to help health and social care economies reduce the number of Gram-negative bloodstream infections (BSIs) with an initial focus on Escherichia coli (E.coli).

The complete categorization of the commonly used robustness metrics considered in this article in accordance with the three transformations (performance value transformation ( T 1 ) (Table outlet new arrival Stonefly Women’s Vanity III 11 Wedge Heels Sandals Grey Taupe 423 outlet low price sale 100% original 1gG4n
), scenario subset selection ( T 2 ) (Table cheap fashionable get authentic cheap price Fly London Women’s Tram723fly Heels Sandals Blank Blue Smurf Blue 006 new styles for sale vGFo67PisQ
) and robustness metric calculation ( T 3 ) (Table Dr Martens Mens 1461 Lace Up Charro Brown clearance nicekicks tBmdwn
)), as well as the relative level of risk aversion that is associated with T 2 (Figure outlet with paypal order online Skechers Men’s onTheGo City 3 Trainers Brown Chocolate clearance professional IwTqg
), is given in Table Merrell Women’s All Out Blaze Ventilator GoreTex Low Rise Hiking Shoes Multicolor Sea Pine Cheapest for sale clearance visit new discount 100% original OmwpatRR
. It is hoped that this can provide some guidance to decision‐makers in relation to which robustness metric is appropriate for their decision context.

In relation to the performance value transformation ( T 1 ), which robustness metric is most appropriate depends on whether the performance value in question relates to the satisfaction of a system constraint or not, and is therefore a function of the properties of the system under consideration. For example, if the system is concerned with supplying water to a city, there is generally a hard constraint in terms of supply having to meet or exceeding demand, so that the city does not run out of water (Beh et al., sale reliable cheap sale under Stonefly Women’s Vanity III 11 Wedge Heels Sandals Grey Taupe 423 100% original discount fashionable ZAlXF
). The system performs satisfactorily if this demand is met and that is the primary concern of the decision‐maker. Alternatively, there might be a fixed budget for stream restoration activities, which also provides a constraint. In this case, a solution alternative performs satisfactorily if its cost does not exceed the budget. For the above examples, where performance values correspond to determining whether constraints have been met or not, satisficing metrics, such as Starr's domain criterion, are most appropriate.

In contrast, if the performance value in question relates to optimizing system performance, metrics that use the identity or regret transforms would be most suitable. For example, for the water supply security case mentioned above, the objective might be to identify the cheapest solution alternative that enables supply to satisfy demand. However, there might also be concern in over‐investment in expensive water supply infrastructure that is not needed, in which case robustness metrics that apply a regret transformation might be most appropriate, as this would enable the degree of over‐investment to be minimized when applied to the cost performance value. For the stream restoration example, however, decision‐makers might simply be interested in maximizing ecological response for the given budget. In this case, robustness metrics that use the identity transform might be most appropriate when considering performance values related to ecological response.

In relation to scenario subset selection ( T 2 ), which robustness metric is most appropriate depends on a combination of the likely impact of system failure and the degree of risk aversion of the decision‐maker. In general, if the consequences of system failure are more severe, the degree of risk‐aversion adopted would be higher, resulting in the selection of robustness metrics that consider scenarios that are likely to have a more deleterious impact on system performance. For example, in the water supply security case, it is likely that robustness metrics that consider more extreme scenarios would be considered, as a city running out of water would most likely have severe consequences. In contrast, as the potential negative impacts for the stream restoration example are arguably less severe, robustness metrics that use a wider range or less severe scenarios might be considered. However, this also depends on the values and degree of risk aversion of the decision maker.

The scenario subset selection transformation ( T 2 ) involves determining which values of f ( x i ,  S ) to use in the robustness metric calculation ( T 3 ) (i.e., f ( x i ,  S ) ⊆  f ( x i ,  S )), which is akin to selecting a subset of the available scenarios over which system performance is to be assessed. This reflects a particular degree of risk aversion, where consideration of more extreme scenarios in the calculation of a robustness metric corresponds to a higher degree of risk aversion and vice versa. As can be seen from Table cheap big discount NIKE Tennis Classic CS 829351003 Stealth/Stealth/Pure Platinum outlet locations f1RsZC7Luo
, which scenarios are considered in the robustness calculation is highly variable between different metrics.

The third transformation ( T 3 ) involves the calculation of the actual robustness metric based on transformed system performance values ( T 1 ) for the selected scenarios ( T 2 ), which corresponds to the transformation of f ( x i ,  S ) to a single robustness value, R ( x i ,  S ). This equates to an identity transform in cases where only a single scenario is selected in T 2 , as there is only a single transformed performance value, which automatically becomes the robustness value. However, in cases where there are transformed performance values for multiple scenarios, these have to be transformed into a single value by means of calculating statistical moments of these values, such as the mean, standard deviation, skewness or kurtosis.

In this section, a taxonomy of different robustness metrics is given in accordance with the three transformations introduced in Section New Ice Balance Canvas and Suede 42/85 m991smg SS15 buy cheap purchase discount real Cheapest for sale prices for sale clearance top quality ULD17wFera
. A summary of the three transformations, as well as the relative level of risk aversion, is provided in Section Evans Women’s Rae Closed Toe Ballet Flats Brown Brown 2014 new R2KfPk
.

A categorization of different robustness metrics in accordance with the performance value transformation ( T 1 ) is given in Table Tommy Hilfiger Tobias Trainers Drizzle Grey shop for for sale DbG758
. As can be seen, the categorization is based on (1) whether calculation of a robustness metric is based on the absolute performance of a particular decision alternative or the performance of a decision alternative relative to that of another decision alternative or a benchmark; and (2) whether a robustness metric provides an indication of actual system performance or whether system performance is satisfactory compared with a pre‐specified performance threshold.

Many of the classic decision analytic robustness metrics belong to the bottom‐right hand quadrant of Table Paul Green Women’s Ankle Boots HiTop Trainers Grey Grey Stone 011 latest cheap price E1LBbN
, including the maximax and maximin criteria, Hurwicz's optimism‐pessimism rule and Laplace's principle of insufficient reason, as well as well more recently developed metrics such as the mean‐variance criterion, percentile based skewness and percentile‐based peakedness. These metrics utilize information about the absolute performance (e.g., cost, reliability) of a particular decision alternative in a particular scenario. Consequently, values of f ( x i ,  S ) consist of these performance values, and robust decision alternatives are those that maximize system performance across the scenarios. The difference between these metrics is which values of the distribution of performance values over the different scenarios f ( x i ,  S ) they use in the robustness calculation (i.e., scenario subset selection ( T 2 )) and how these values are combined into a single value of R (i.e., robustness metric calculation ( T 3 )), as discussed in Sections
recommend cheap price clearance 100% original Jimmy Choo Womens MOTOKO100UEBPINK Pink Suede Sandals cheap sale huge surprise outlet purchase shopping online EBq1fqL
Ted Baker Womens Immep 2 Closed Toe Ballet Flats White Palace Gardens Ffc0cb 6 39 EU clearance order professional factory outlet cheap price TOdl1L
Cofra JV014000W38 Size 38 S1 P SRC New Big Air Safety Shoes Grey clearance online cheap real iPYua0
Reebok Womens RCF Lite Lo TR Poly Training Shoe Lush Orchid/Purple Glow/Solar Gold/Graphite/White release dates cheap price discount nicekicks for sale buy authentic online order cheap online rwWXa3
enjoy cheap online clearance sale online Tommy Hilfiger Casual Shoes for Men Colour Light Brown Brand Model Casual Shoes for Men FM0FM01338 Light Brown Light Brown sale ebay free shipping looking for buy cheap manchester great sale 7czE8M
footlocker pictures sale online Vans Era UnisexChilds LowTop Trainers Charcoal Gray/Black/Red extremely discounts online pictures cheap price cheap buy T0acLzsLg
sast sale online factory outlet Sam Edelman Women’s Joey Ankle Boots Black 10 M US Burnt Umber latest collections kYvKZ0z
adidas Mens Clima Cool 1 Ba8611 Trainers Silver clearance best sale cheap sale free shipping discount top quality outlet store online 47GHDP5
Andrea Conti Women’s 3000518 Closed Toe Heels Blue Jeans brand new unisex sale online n6whasTdLu
Elizabeth Stuart Sita 667 Women’s Sandals Beige Sable/Sable for sale top quality discount buy free shipping 100% guaranteed sale fashion Style buy online cheap price FfO7L6GeW
and Nike Mens Air Max Fury Running Shoes Black Black/White Black 001 nicekicks for sale sale outlet clearance affordable quality free shipping outlet original cheap online VfvEnaJ
.

More
Messenger SMS
Menbur Women’s Giedi Open Sandals Beige Stone discount best prices discount browse discount shopping online PwOP3
ebay for sale get authentic sale online Rieker Women’s 659z090 Open Toe Sandals Silver 90 nicekicks for sale view cheap online F4jZqT0Jt
Follow Joe on:
visit online discount 100% authentic KSwiss Mens Trainers Arvee 15 Black White Lace up Designer Sneakers Sizes 612 manchester great sale for sale b0DTJ
buy cheap outlet store Saucony Men’s Shadow 5000 Vintage LowTop Sneakers Grey Gray 1 45 UK free shipping largest supplier cheap sale high quality Y423UJ

Joe Garofoli is the San Francisco Chronicle’s senior political writer, covering national and state politics. He has worked at The Chronicle since 2000 and in Bay Area journalism since 1992, when he left the Milwaukee Journal. He is the host of “It’s All Political,” The Chronicle’s political podcast. Catch it here: https://bit.ly/2LSAUjA .

He has won numerous awards and covered everything from fashion to the Jeffrey Dahmer serial killings to two Olympic Games to his own vasectomy — which he discussed on NPR’s “Talk of the Nation” after being told he couldn’t say the word “balls” on the air. He regularly appears on Bay Area radio and TV talking politics and is available to entertain at bar mitzvahs and First Communions. He is a graduate of Northwestern University and a proud native of Pittsburgh. Go Steelers!

Past Articles from this Author: